Municipal financial equalization; general information

Municipal fiscal equalization covers a large part of the financial relations between the Free State of Bavaria and its municipalities (municipalities, counties and districts) and among the municipalities themselves.


Fiscal equalization in the broader sense is the sum of all regulations concerning the distribution of tasks, expenditures and revenues between the territorial authorities. The Bavarian Law on Fiscal Equalization between the State, Municipalities and Associations of Municipalities (Bavarian Fiscal Equalization Law - BayFAG) regulates which tax revenues of the State the municipalities participate in and to what extent and how the funds provided by the Free State are distributed. Municipal financial equalization in the narrower sense deals with financial relations between the regional authorities.

Within the framework of municipal financial equalization

  • the state improves the financial resources of the three levels of local government (municipalities, counties and districts) so that they have sufficient funds to fulfill their tasks;
  • the state regulates the financing of the counties and districts through the county and district levy;
  • different revenue possibilities of the individual municipalities are balanced to a high degree according to their needs;
  • municipal investment measures are supported in a targeted manner, and
  • the municipalities are relieved of the burden of financing current tasks by means of state benefits.

Goals of municipal fiscal equalization

Municipal fiscal equalization has two main objectives, one fiscal and one distributional:

  • First, government allocations supplement the municipalities' own revenues. The municipalities are supported so that they can fulfill their tasks appropriately.
  • On the other hand, fiscal equalization is intended to ensure a financial distribution among the municipal levels and the individual municipalities that is appropriate to the tasks.

    Municipal fiscal equalization thus contributes to the creation of equal living conditions throughout the country. However, the principle of equal treatment and the constitutional guarantee of local self-government draw a line here: the different financial strength of the municipalities must not be completely leveled or even over-leveled.

    Both objectives correspond to the role of the state as guarantor of local self-government. Self-responsible action by self-governing bodies presupposes their financial capacity. The state is therefore constitutionally obliged to ensure the financial viability of its municipalities within the framework of its own capacity.

    Characteristics of the current equalization system

    The system of municipal financial equalization is characterized by several structural features, two of which are particularly distinctive.

    The first characteristic is the so-called tax associations. Through them, the municipalities have a percentage share in certain tax revenues of the state. In this area, the state and the municipalities form a kind of "community of fate."

    The second defining feature is the apportionments between the individual municipal levels and between the state and the municipalities. As a result, the financial flows are not only "top-down" but also "bottom-up."

    Sources of municipal fiscal equalization (Where do the funds come from?)

    Funds fromthe Free State of Bavaria

    The state's fiscal equalization payments are financed by the tax associations and from other general budget funds.
    In Bavaria, the municipalities participate in four different tax associations:
  • General tax association (Art. 1 of the Bavarian Fiscal Equalization Act - BayFAG)
    Within the framework of the general tax association, the Free State of Bavaria grants the municipalities and counties a share of 12.75 percent of its revenues from income tax, corporate income tax, sales tax (excluding those shares that are handed out to the municipalities under special regulations or that are left to the state by the federal government to fulfill special purposes) and the trade tax levy. The municipal share of the general tax revenues is used primarily to finance the key allocations (for more details, see below).
  • Motor vehicle tax substitute association (Art. 13 to 14 BayFAG)
    The Free State originally left part of its revenue from motor vehicle tax to the municipalities via the motor vehicle tax association. The revenue sovereignty for the motor vehicle tax was transferred to the federal government on July 1, 2009. To compensate for this, the states receive a non-dynamized fixed amount from the federal government (motor vehicle tax substitute association). The Free State gives the municipalities a share of 70 percent of this (municipal share).

    The funds are primarily earmarked for promoting the construction, expansion and maintenance of municipal roads and the construction or expansion of infrastructure facilities for local public transport (ÖPNV).
  • Income tax rate (Art. 1b BayFAG)
    The change in the accounting of child benefit due to the new regulation of family benefit equalization as of 1996 as well as tax law changes due to the Tax Simplification Act 2011 lead to reduced income tax revenues for the states and municipalities. To compensate for this, the federal government gives the states a higher share of the revenue from sales tax. The Free State passes on the full amount of the compensation attributable to the municipalities in proportion to their share of income tax (26.08 percent).
  • Real Estate Transfer Tax Association (Art. 8 BayFAG)
    The municipalities and counties have a share of 8/21 (municipal share) in the revenue from real estate transfer tax. The municipal share is distributed among the municipalities according to the respective local revenue. Independent municipalities and large district cities receive the full municipal share, the other municipalities belonging to the district receive three sevenths of the municipal share themselves and their districts receive four sevenths. The tax offices transfer the municipal share to the municipalities on a monthly basis. The funds are freely available as so-called general budget funds.
  • General budget funds
    In addition to the composite services, the municipalities receive additional budget funds from the state budget. They are used, for example, to finance financial allocations and the state share of hospital financing, as well as, in some cases, needs allocations or stabilization assistance, allocations for municipal building construction measures and allocations to the districts.

Local government funds

The primary source of revenue for counties, the county levy, is provided by the county municipalities in each county. The districts' main source of revenue, the district levy, is raised by the districts from the counties and independent municipalities in the territory of the respective district. Through the county and district levy, the counties and districts participate indirectly in the tax revenues of the municipalities.

The counties and independent municipalities participate in half of the hospital financing via the hospital levy.

Federal funding

The federal government provides funding for public transport investments eligible for support under the GVFG (for more details, see below). In 2022, the Free State is expected to receive 55 million euros.

In addition, the Free State of Bavaria can draw on a total of around 295 million euros from the Hospital Structural Fund set up by the federal government from the liquidity reserve of the Health Fund in accordance with Section 12a of the Hospital Financing Act (KHG) in the years 2019 to 2024 to co-finance certain structural improvement projects in hospital care.

Benefits of the municipal financial equalization scheme (Where do the funds go?)

The main areas of municipal financial equalization are:

  • Key allocations (Art. 2 to 6 BayFAG)
    The key allocations supplement the tax revenues of the municipalities and the levy revenues of the counties in line with their tasks. Certain special burdens, such as social burdens, are taken into account. The funds for the key allocations are taken from the municipal share of the general tax pool. Of the key mass, 64% goes to the municipalities and 36% to the districts.

    When determining the key allocations, the task burden of a municipality is compared with its revenue potential on the basis of objective indicators. A fictitious burden is determined on the basis of several criteria (number of inhabitants, district autonomy, structural weaknesses, social burdens, childcare) and compared with the municipality's tax power, which is in part determined in a standardized way, e.g. in the case of trade tax and property tax by means of "levelling assessment rates". The higher the difference between the tax burden and the tax power, the higher the respective key allocation to the municipality.

    In this way, a revenue situation of the individual municipality that is too weak in relation to the respective tax burden is partially compensated by higher key allocations.

    If the tax power of a municipality exceeds its tax burden, then it does not receive any key allocations. Such an efficient municipality is called "abundant".

    The key allocations are granted "automatically", i.e. without application.
  • Financial allocations (Art. 7, 9 BayFAG)
    Municipalities, administrative communities and counties receive lump-sum financial allocations as compensation for the administrative expenses for the tasks of the transferred sphere of action, counties also as compensation for the administrative expenses for the state authority Landratsamt. The allocations are granted "automatically", i.e. without application.
  • Municipal building construction (Art. 10 BayFAG)
    The allocations for municipal building construction measures are primarily intended to ensure that a roughly equivalent infrastructure can be provided to the necessary extent in all regions of Bavaria, particularly in the areas of public schools and daycare facilities for children. In principle, new buildings, conversions and extensions as well as general and partial refurbishments of public schools (including school sports facilities), student dormitories and daycare facilities for children are eligible for allocation. In addition, structural investments for professional municipal theaters and concert halls are eligible for allocation under certain conditions.
  • Allocations for the costs of transporting pupils (Art. 10a BayFAG)
    The state grants flat-rate allocations to the responsible authorities to cover the costs of the necessary transport of pupils at certain types of schools (e.g. public primary, secondary and special schools, public or state-recognized secondary modern schools, grammar schools, full-time vocational schools). On average in the state, these cover about 60 % of the pupil transportation costs of the responsible bodies.

    The assessment of the individual annual allocation is based on the number of pupils with transportation entitlement as of October 1 of the respective previous year (in the case of vocational schools as of October 20) and on the costs for the necessary pupil transportation of the previous year recorded in the municipal accounting statistics. The number of pupils entitled to transportation must be reported annually by the municipalities to the Bavarian State Office for Statistics. Otherwise, no application is required. The allocations are granted "automatically", i.e. without the need to submit an application.
  • Needs-based allocations and stabilization aid (Art. 11 BayFAG)
    Classic needs-based allocations under Art. 11 BayFAG take account of the exceptional situation and special tasks of municipalities or districts in individual cases.

    As a rule, municipalities only receive classic needs-based allocations if, as a result of events for which they are not responsible and despite exhausting all their own revenue options, they are no longer in a position to balance their administrative budget and/or generate the minimum allocation to the asset budget. In the case of double-entry budgeting, a negative balance from current administrative activities is required.

    In the case of classic needs-based allocations to administrative districts, the primary consideration is whether, due to their specific structural circumstances, the districts have to bear extraordinary burdens or tasks that are not covered by the standard allocations of the municipal fiscal equalization scheme and lead to particular budgetary difficulties. The overall situation of the administrative budget or the balance from current administrative activities is also taken into account.

    Since 2012, structurally weak municipalities or municipalities that are particularly affected by demographic developments, which are in financial difficulties or whose financial performance is at risk, can be supported in their budget consolidation by means of so-called stabilization assistance, a special form of needs-based allocations. This is a form of government assistance to help municipalities help themselves.

    Since 2019, stabilization assistance to municipalities has been a two-pillar model: Stabilization aid can be applied for to repay old debt (1st pillar) and/or as investment aid (2nd pillar).

    The aim is for municipalities to reduce their above-average debt levels through their own consolidation and the granting of stabilization aid, as well as to reduce interest and repayment payments so that they regain more financial room for maneuver. The investment aid serves to prevent an increase in or reduce an investment backlog in basic municipal equipment.

    Decisions on all applications for a classic needs allocation or stabilization aid are made by the State Ministries of Finance and of the Interior, Sports and Integration after consultation with the central municipal associations.
  • Investment lump sums (Art. 12 BayFAG)
    Municipalities and districts receive investment lump sums to finance investment, repair and modernization measures. The respective municipality decides for which investments the funds are to be used.

    The lump sums are granted "automatically", i.e. without the need to submit an application.
  • Municipal road construction and maintenance (Art. 13a, b, c, f and h BayFAG)
    Funds from the motor vehicle tax substitute are available to promote the construction, expansion and maintenance of roads in municipal charge. The following are eligible for funding under certain conditions
  • the construction, expansion and maintenance of district and municipal roads as well as local through-roads of federal, state and district roads in the charge of municipalities,
  • the construction and expansion of certain sidewalks and bicycle paths as well as cycle paths,
  • the construction of bypasses or relief roads in the course of state roads under the special construction obligation of municipalities, and
  • the modification of intersections between state and municipal or county roads.

Support for municipal road construction and maintenance is provided in the form of targeted allocations for construction measures, lump-sum fixed amounts for road construction and maintenance, and lump-sum road expansion payments.

  • Local public transport (Art. 13c (2) and Art. 13d BayFAG)
    In addition to state funds under the BayGVFG and BayFAG, federal funds under the GVFG and the Act on the Regionalization of Local Rail Transport are also available to promote investments in local public transport (e.g. construction or expansion of streetcar, subway and commuter rail routes and central bus stations and stops).

    BayFAG funds are granted as complementary funding to construction or expansion measures on public transport facilities that are funded by federal and state funding (GVFG and BayGVFG). Only the BayGVFG provides funding for the procurement of buses and metro and streetcar vehicles. Funding from the GVFG federal program is only possible, among other things, if the eligible costs exceed 30 million euros (for measures included in the GVFG federal program by the end of 2020: 50 million euros).

    To co-finance the holding costs from local transport services, to promote public services in local public transport and to cover cost coverage shortfalls in transport cooperations, the public authorities responsible for general local public transport receive allocations in accordance with Art. 27 BayÖPNVG. These are granted from the funds of Art. 13d BayFAG, which are designed as a fixed amount. Approximately 66 percent of the funds are allocated to the region and 34 percent to the metropolitan areas of Munich, Regensburg, Würzburg, Augsburg and the Nuremberg/Fürth/Erlangen urban axis.
  • Allocation to the districts (Art. 15 BayFAG)
    The state grants the districts an allocation to cover the burdens they incur, especially as providers of integration assistance and as supra-local providers of social assistance. The allocation is granted "automatically", i.e. without the need to submit an application.
  • Hospital financing (Art. 10b BayFAG)
    Under the dual hospital financing system, the costs of the necessary acute inpatient investments of hospitals included in the hospital plan of the Free State of Bavaria are not covered by the revenues from the nursing rates or per-case flat rates, but are assumed by way of public funding. Half of the funding is provided by the state and half by the municipalities. The municipal share is provided by a hospital levy to be paid by all districts and independent municipalities. In addition to the state funds, federal funds from the Hospital Structural Fund pursuant to Section 12a of the German Hospital Act (KHG) will be available in the years 2019 to 2024, which can be used to co-finance certain projects to improve the structure of hospital care.

Further information can be found under "Related topics".


The prerequisites for the numerous service areas of the municipal financial equalization scheme are very different, detailed and, in some cases, complex. They can therefore not be presented comprehensively here. Therefore, please contact your district office or your (independent) city. If you have any questions about funding for municipal building and road construction projects, public transport or hospital funding, please contact the relevant district government.

Further information can also be found under "Related topics".


Your district office or your (independent) city will also inform you about any relevant dates and deadlines in the municipal financial equalization scheme, or the relevant district government in the case of funding for municipal building and road construction measures, local public transport and hospital funding.

Further information can also be found under "Related topics".

Status: 31.05.2023

Responsible for editing: Bayerisches Staatsministerium der Finanzen und für Heimat

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