Large and heavy transports; application for a permit or an exemption
A permit is required for traffic with vehicles whose dimensions, axle loads or total weights exceed the limits generally permitted by law or whose design does not allow the driver an adequate field of vision. If the exceeding results only from the load, a special permit is required.
Section 29 (3) of the Road Traffic Regulations (StVO) stipulates that traffic with vehicles and trains whose dimensions, axle loads or total masses actually exceed the generally permitted legal limits require a permit. This also applies to traffic with vehicles whose design does not allow the driver a sufficient field of vision. If, on the other hand, the exceeding of the limits is only due to the load, an exceptional permit is required in accordance with § 46 Para. 1 No. 5 of the German Road Traffic Regulations (StVO).
A permit for large-volume and heavy transports (special transports) can only be issued if the vehicle or vehicle combinations in question have a vehicle-related exemption permit in accordance with Section 70 (1) No. 1 or 2 of the Road Traffic Licensing Regulations (StVZO).
Permits are issued on application and depending on the circumstances of the individual case, for a maximum period of three years, as an individual permit, short-term permit or permanent permit. Permanent permits can be issued for a specific route or for a whole area. They are always subject to revocation.
The basis for the official decision is usually the implementation of a hearing procedure, in which in particular the road authorities located along the planned transport route are heard. The purpose of this is to assess the risks posed to other road users or the road infrastructure (especially bridges) by, for example, a particularly wide transport or a particularly heavy transport and, if necessary, to counteract these risks by imposing official requirements and conditions.
If the safety or order of traffic or the protection of the road infrastructure so requires, the permits are subject to requirements and conditions. For example, time restrictions may be imposed (e.g. transport during the night when there is little traffic) or the applicant may be required to provide security for the transport by providing private escort vehicles (e.g. of the BF-4 type).
The escort of special transports by the police is to be provided by the permitting authorities only in cases where securing the transport by private transport escorts is not considered sufficient.
In particular, permission may only be granted
- the traffic is not possible - at least for the major part of the route - by rail or water, or if unreasonable additional costs would be incurred by traffic by rail or water, and if roads are available for the entire route, the structural condition of which is not impaired by the traffic and for the protection of which no special measures are required, or if at least the subsequent restoration of the roads or the implementation of those measures would not be too time-consuming or too extensive, particularly for traffic reasons.
- for the transport of an indivisible load; a load is indivisible if its disassembly is impossible for technical reasons or would cause unreasonable costs; the accessories of a crane and the weights of a calibration vehicle are also considered indivisible;
- for the transport of a load consisting of more than one part, if the parts cannot be transported as individual pieces for strength reasons and they are indivisible;
- accessories to indivisible loads; they may not exceed 10% of the total mass of the load and must be listed in the accompanying document with an exact designation;
- for the transport of several individual indivisible parts, each of which, because of its length, width or height, requires the use of a vehicle with a special permit according to § 70 StVZO and is indivisible, but in compliance with the total mass and axle loads permitted according to § 34 StVZO;
If the applicant or the person carrying out the transport has intentionally or through gross negligence previously carried out a transport requiring a permit without the required permit or has violated the conditions and requirements of a permit, he or she shall not be granted another permit for an appropriate period of time.
If the consignor and consignee have sidings, the issuance of a permit shall be permitted only if it is demonstrated that rail transportation is not possible or is unreasonable. The proof may only be waived in urgent cases.
A permit in accordance with Section 29 (3) of the StVO is not required if vehicles and vehicle combinations exceed the dimensions specified in the StVO only because of their load. In these cases, an exemption permit must be applied for in accordance with Section 46 ( 1 ) No. 5 of the StVO. The same authority that would be responsible for the permit in accordance with Section 29 (3) of the StVO is responsible for issuing it.
The authorities responsible for issuing the permit are the lower road traffic authorities. In Bavaria, these are the district offices and independent cities. In addition, the large district cities also perform this task. The responsible permit authority is the authority in whose district the transport requiring the permit begins, or the permit authority in whose district the applicant has his place of residence, his registered office or a branch office.
Permits for special transports can only be issued upon application. The application must specify the intended route and, in particular, the following actual technical data:
- Length, width, height,
- actual total mass, actual axle loads,
- number of axles, axle spacing, number of wheels per axle,
- type and designation of the load and information on the indivisibility of the load, dimensions and weight of the load,
- maximum design speed of the transport,
- registration plates and vehicle identification numbers of towing vehicles and trailers as well as individual vehicles.
Applications can be submitted either in writing to the licensing authorities (application form), or online via the browser-based Internet platform provided by the eGovernment project VEMAGS® "Procedural Management for Large and Heavy Transport" (see under "Online Procedures").
The responsible authority conducts a hearing procedure based on the application. As part of this process, it involves all the authorities affected by the transport route within Germany and compiles their comments on the application (e.g., rejection, approval subject to conditions) into a permit notice.
Due to the necessary involvement of various authorities, the permit should be applied for as early as possible. The processing of the applications usually requires several weeks.
Annexes and appendices shall be attached only if they are necessary for the examination of the application.
Exemption according to § 70 StVZO
The application shall specify the intended route and at least the following actual technical data:
Length, width, height, permissible and actual total mass, permissible and actual axle loads, number of axles, axle spacings, number of wheels per axle, type and designation of the load and information on the indivisibility of the load, dimensions and weight of the load, maximum design speed of the transport, registration number and vehicle identification numbers of towing vehicles and trailers and cornering behaviour as well as ground clearance. The information on the axle pattern is superfluous if the total mass, axle loads and axle distances according to § 34 StVZO are not exceeded.
For decisions within the scope of the Road Traffic Regulations, fees are charged in accordance with the Fee Regulations for Road Traffic Measures (GebOSt). The GebOSt) provides for a basic fee of 40.00 euros and a maximum fee of 1,300.00 euros for decisions on a permit or exception for large or heavy goods transports in accordance with § 29 Paragraph 3 or § 46 Paragraph 1 Sentence 1 Number 5 StVO.
The fee is calculated nationwide in accordance with the annex to fee number 263.1.1 of the GebOSt (Decision on a permit or exception for large-volume and heavy-volume transports in accordance with § 29 Paragraph 3 or § 46 Paragraph 1 Sentence 1 Number 5 StVO).
Links to more information
Responsible for editing: Bayerisches Staatsministerium des Innern, für Sport und Integration
- Online transactions, Bavaria-wide
- Online transactions, locally limited
- Prefillable Form, Bavaria-wide
- Legal bases, Bavaria-wide
- Legal bases, locally limited
- Fees, Bavaria-wide
- Fees, locally limited